Destroying Palestinian Universities
Foreign lecturers as well as Palestinian lecturers who studied or taught abroad are being expelled from West Bank academic institutes with a form of bureaucratic violence
Daphna Golan, Jul 26, 2018, 3:21 AM
As Israeli students are finishing their final exams, Palestinian students in the occupied territories don’t know whether their institutions will be opening for the coming academic year or if their lecturers will continue to teach, as dozens of lecturers with European and American citizenship are being expelled.
Around half the foreign lecturers at Palestinian universities started receiving letters last November, saying their requests to have their residency visas extended had been refused because they’ve been “living in the area for more than five years.”
In addition, the foreign spouses of these lecturers are being asked to sign declarations that they do not intend to work. To assure that they keep this promise, they are asked to pay guarantees of between 20,000 shekels and 80,000 shekels (about $5,500 to $22,000), which will be forfeited if it is discovered that they’d been working despite the ban.
We are not talking about universities in Gaza, where both the lecturers and students are under siege and cannot leave at all, and foreign lecturers cannot enter, but universities in the West Bank.
This year, at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, I had the privilege of teaching both Israeli and Palestinian students, as well as students from Peru, Kenya, Cyprus, Canada and Greece. During this academic year, as every year, there were international conferences held at the university attended by foreign researchers. By contrast, dozens of students and lecturers from abroad who want to study or teach at Palestinian universities are being arrested at the border and expelled.
The campus of the Arab American University in Jenin. Established in 2000, AAUJ offers studies in English and has attracted growing numbers of Israeli Arab students.Yaser Wakid
Laura Wick and her husband, Prof. Roger Hickok, are among those who are being forced to leave after 35 years of teaching and research at Birzeit University, because their visas have not been extended. Wick specializes in pediatric medical research and Hickok is a professor of European history, one of the founders of the university’s Institute of International Studies.
In a public letter that was circulated on international academic networks, Hickok described how he and his wife had become “illegal” residents. It happened when they returned from a home visit to the United States. At Ben-Gurion Airport they were given a tourist visa for two weeks, and told they would have to ask the military authorities to extend it. The description of their Kafkaesque efforts to enter the military camp in Beit El to deal with their visas, and of the phone calls and faxes that weren’t answered for months, is sad and depressing.
The presence of international researchers for lengthy periods is an international criterion for ranking institutions of higher education. Without such a presence, the university suffers from what’s referred to as “ghettoization of knowledge.” What’s more, a significant number of the lecturers being expelled are Palestinians who studied in the United States and Europe; some were born in the occupied territories and went to study abroad.
While Israel makes great efforts and invests millions to bring back Israeli academics who are teaching abroad, it makes life very difficult for Palestinian lecturers who studied and taught abroad, allowing them to teach in Palestinian universities for five years at most. The expulsion of Palestinian lecturers, which prevents them from getting tenure and developing an academic career in the territories will only lead to the slow destruction of Palestinian universities.
At Birzeit University, all students are required to study European philosophy and history.. It was also the first university in the Middle East to establish a women’s studies program. However, the male and female students – women account for more than half of the student body – have almost no option to study abroad, and the lecturers who teach English, European or American history, cultural studies and foreign literature, are being expelled.
During the first intifada, the Israeli army closed the universities for years, and closed schools and kindergartens for many months, creating the so-called “lost generation.” This is the generation whose education suffered a serious setback and from which the lecturers of today could have sprung.
Does Israel want to create more lost generations of Palestinians who won’t get higher education and are not exposed to foreign ideas and knowledge? Does the destruction of higher education in the territories benefit Israel? Will Israel’s bureaucratic violence lead to similar restrictions being imposed on Israeli students and academics?
Prof. Golan teaches in the Hebrew University Law Faculty. Her book “Hope on the Campus Margins – Israeli and Palestinian Students in Jerusalem,” was recently published by Resling.
Nayef Hashlamon: Watan Center, Hebron
Israel has always defined itself as the State of the Jewish People, and its recent adoption of the Jewish Nation State Law is simply a declaration to the world of its historic commitment, ideologically and programmatically, to Jewish supremacy. Many critics of Israel’s 51-year-old occupation of Palestinian East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza, and the Syrian Golan Heights have referred to Israel’s occupation of these territories as a system of apartheid. However, some among these critics, such as President Jimmy Carter, rejected the use of the same term to describe Israel’s relationship to the roughly 20 percent Palestinian Arab minorities who hold Israeli citizenship within Israel’s 1948/49 border. After the passage of the new Israeli law, such critics ought to open their eyes to the historical reality of Israel since its establishment in 1948, and recognize the deep racism that underlies its state and society.
The expropriation of Palestinian land and the ethnic cleansing of Palestinians in the early years of Israel’s existence were traumatic. Israel’s Absentees’ Property Law (1950) and Land Acquisition Law (1953), among others, resulted in the pauperization and ghettoization of Palestinian citizens of Israel. More than 60 laws directly and indirectly ensured that they remain far behind Israeli Jews in every aspect of their existence including their access to the legal system, citizenship privileges, income and employment, distribution of resources and social welfare, accessibility to land, educational resources, availability of health resources, and political participation. The Israeli occupation in 1967 of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza, and the Golan Heights, and the extreme form of apartheid practiced there are an extension of the settler-colonial praxis that created Israel.
What is new is that Israel now feels emboldened by the ascendancy of right-wing racism, xenophobia, and Islamophobia in the United States in particular, and western societies in general. It no longer feels that it has to conceal its own racism. The recent love fest of right-wing extremists in the annual conference of Christians United for Israel in Washington, DC is emblematic of the convergence of Zionism with anti-democratic forces in the West. Thankfully, others in the West are speaking out more forcefully against racism and discrimination in all its forms. And the movement of solidarity with the Palestinians is growing worldwide, including in the United States and Europe.
We call on all people of conscience to condemn Israeli apartheid unapologetically and to heed the call for boycott, divestment, and sanctions in solidarity with the Palestinian non-violent struggle for justice, peace, and freedom. In particular, as a faith-based group, we call on other people of faith, including our evangelical brothers and sisters, to challenge Israel’s intensifying apartheid. For Christian groups to remain silent about the implications of Israel’s Jewish Nation State Law and all other Israeli human rights violations stands in contradiction to the Biblical mandate to do justice and to stand with the oppressed.
Then the Lord saw it, and it displeased Him that there was no justice. (Isaiah 59:15b)
As he approached Jerusalem and saw the city, he wept over it. (Luke 19:41)
We the undersigned, a group of Palestinian-American Christians from several church traditions, call on all faith communities to:
- Denounce the Trump administration’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and the decision to move the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem.
- Lift up, in your places of worship, the plight of Palestinians, Muslims and Christians alike, recognizing that Israeli policies of occupation and apartheid are leading to the virtual extinction of the indigenous Christian population in Palestine.
- Recognize the urgency of ending Israel’s genocidal siege and attacks on the entire Palestinian hostage population of the Gaza Strip.
- Continue to use economic pressure as well as other nonviolent means to compel Israel to end its apartheid practices and policies against the Palestinian people.
We express deep concern at the increasingly hostile direction of Israeli policies and actions, emboldened by the equally aggressive foreign policy stance of the Trump administration toward the Palestinian people. President Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital is the final nail in the coffin of the so-called “peace process,” which has now been unmasked as a farce, exposing the United States not as an “honest broker” but as Israel’s unquestioning advocate. There is little doubt that the Trump administration’s Jerusalem decision, although condemned by the overwhelming majority of the international community, will encourage Israel to act with even greater impunity.
The Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem, as well as the rest of the West Bank, Gaza, and the Syrian Golan Heights, is now in its fifty-first year, the longest military occupation since the end of the nineteenth century. Palestinian Christians and Muslims are calling on the church to use its influence to end the occupation.
Since its occupation of Arab East Jerusalem in 1967, Israel has consistently followed a policy aimed at confining the city’s Palestinian population to ghettos surrounded by a ring of expanding Jewish settlements. It annexed the city and its suburbs into a much-expanded “greater Jerusalem,” and isolated it from the rest of the occupied Palestinian territories. This separation of Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank has resulted in grave economic and social consequences for all Palestinians in the occupied territories, because East Jerusalem has been the economic and spiritual heart of the Palestinian territories. Even the U.S. State Department recognized in a 2009 report that “many of [Israel’s] policies in Jerusalem were designed to limit or diminish the non-Jewish population of Jerusalem.” Palestinian Jerusalemites complain that conditions are far worse now.
Last year, a Palestinian mass protest forced Israeli authorities to retreat from a decision to impose obtrusive “security measures” in the form of metal detectors at the entrances to the Muslim holy sites of the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Christians joined their Muslim brothers and sisters in peaceful protest, some praying shoulder-to-shoulder in the streets surrounding the mosques. More recently, it was the turn of the Christian communities to experience a serious attack on their freedom to worship, in the form of debilitating Israeli taxes on church properties. A protest letter signed by the Patriarchs and Heads of Churches in Jerusalem strongly condemned this decision as a departure from the centuries-old tradition of tax exemptions for places of worship, under both Muslim and Christian rule. Church leaders closed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for several days in protest, marking only the second time to close this sacred site.
Palestinian protests and international pressure have since compelled Israeli authorities to suspend the legislation in question. However, Palestinians are rightly concerned that Israel will continue to find ways to weaken Palestinians’ control of their land and property. Many are concerned about Jerusalem as the birthplace of Christianity: will it become a city with Christian shrines and cathedrals but devoid of the native Christian population?
On Friday, March 30th, Israel committed a massacre in the Gaza Strip, where Palestinians were engaged in a demonstration on Land Day. This annual event commemorates the killing, in 1976, of six unarmed Palestinians in the Galilee who were protesting against the confiscation of their lands. The Gaza demonstrators were protesting against the genocidal conditions that Israel has imposed on the territory of two million inhabitants over the past eleven years; most importantly, they were expressing their right of return to their lands and villages from which the Israeli forces expelled them in 1948. The peaceful protest was interrupted by the Israeli army, which used tanks and militarized drones as well as over 100 well-hidden snipers. Violence began by the Israeli forces who shot a farmer working on his land. This served as incitement to a few protestors—out of a total of about 30,000 peaceful demonstrators, to engage in throwing stones from behind a large, barbed wire fence. The unarmed Palestinians’ actions did not come anywhere close to endangering the Israeli forces. Eighteen Palestinians were shot dead and hundreds of men, women, and children were wounded.
These events occurred on Good Friday, when the Christian world was mourning the crucifixion of Jesus. As the injustices and human rights violations keep piling up against the Palestinian people, we call on all churches and faith communities to take bold steps to end these grave injustices. As Martin Luther King, Jr. said, “Faith is taking the first step up even when you don’t see the whole staircase.”
- American Muslims for Palestine
- Israel-Palestine Mission Network, Presbyterian Church USA
- Franciscan Action Network
- Friends of Sabeel, North America
- Mennonite Palestine-Israel Network
- Pax Christi Metro DC-Baltimore
- Pax Christi USA
- Palestine-Israel Network of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
- Palestine-Israel Network of the Episcopal Peace Fellowship
- Palestine-Israel Network of the United Church of Christ
- United Methodist Kairos Response- Steering Committee
- Kairos USA
Alliance of Baptists President Mike Castle, senior pastor of Harmony Creek Church in Dayton, Ohio, opens a press conference during the group’s 2017 annual gathering at Pullen Memorial Baptist Church in Raleigh, N.C. (Photo/Bob Allen/BNG)
The Alliance of Baptists is a denomination of progressive Baptists who celebrated its 30th Anniversary at their Annual Gathering on April 28-30, 2017. They held their conference at the historic Pullen Memorial Baptist Church in Raleigh, NC. Their theme this year was “Embracing God’s Call to Justice and Love.”
The dynamic and inspirational keynote speakers included Rev. Dr. William Barber, pastor of Greenleaf Christian Church and founder of Together Moral Movement and led the nationally acclaimed Moral Monday protests in North Carolina. He also spoke eloquently and compellingly about justice at the last Democratic National Convention. Naomi Tutu, is a forceful activist for human rights in South Africa, combining teaching and preaching against hate and oppression. She is the daughter of Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Nomalizo Tutu.
PCAP was involved in presenting two Statements and a Call to Action at the General Session. The Statements were:
- A Statement on Supporting the Right of Dissent – in defense of free speech and religious liberty, we will promote the right of churches, individuals and organizations to engage in speech and nonviolent direct action to help end the unjust practices and policies in Israel and Palestine. Specifically, we oppose efforts by Congress and state legislatures to punish entities that engage in Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) or which provide sanctuary for immigrants.
- A Statement in Support of the Freedom of Religion and Freedom from Persecution and Harassment Based on Religion – we recognize the importance of the Middle East to Jews, Christians, and Muslims and support right of access to holy sites for all, particularly Jerusalem. We support measures to ensure the viability of the historic Christian community in Israel and Palestine and the entire region. As Christians and U.S. citizens, we also pledge to stand with Muslims and Jews in the United States in opposing anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic speech and acts of violence or vandalism.
The Executive Board and the General Membership unanimously endorsed these statements.
- A Call to Action Submitted by the Justice in Palestine and Israel Community of the Alliance of Baptists – reminds Alliance of Baptists congregations and individual members of the commitments we made in past resolutions – calling us to work for peace with justice in the Holy Land. It is a Kairos moment for the Alliance to convert there powerful statements into persistent actions Now, more than ever, it is our time to claim our prophetic voice and be God’s hands in bending the long moral arc of the universe toward justice. As our ministry partner and good friend, Rev. Dr. Mitri Raheb tells us, “HOPE is not just a feeling, it is what we stubbornly do every day.” Let us renew our commitment to stubbornly hope and work each day to be Baptists on the frontier doing justice in the Holy Land.
The Executive Board and the General Membership unanimously endorsed this Call to Action.
PCAP was involved in developing a “Keeping Our Promises” resource card that was distributed to all 450 attendees of the gathering. The resource card provides support to clergy and congregants who are interested in learning about the conditions in the Holy Land so that they may discern how they can work for peace with justice. To support churches, the Justice in Palestine and Israel Community identified a contact person for each effort in the following areas:
- Holding a Film Series
- Inviting Palestinian speakers
- Conducting Study Groups
- Offering Pilgrimage to the Holy Land
- Advocating with elected officials
A Palestinian elder participating in a commemoration of the 67th anniversary of the Nakba — Israel’s ethnic cleansing of Palestine — in Gaza on 15 May, holds a sign that says “Haifa, we will return.”
(Abed Rahim Khatib / APA images)
The following call was issued today by the Palestinian Boycott National Committee (BNC) and the undersigned Palestinian organizations in Gaza on the occasion of Nakba Day, the commemoration of Israel’s 1948 ethnic cleansing of Palestine:
As Palestinians commemorate the Nakba, the catastrophe in 1948 when more than 700,000 indigenous Palestinians were ethnically cleansed from their homes by Zionist militias and later the State of Israel, life in the occupied and besieged Gaza Strip is reaching a fatal tipping point, as the UN has warned.
Close to two million Palestinians are incarcerated by Israel in a small space, condemned to a life of misery, where not even water, the source of life, is fit for human consumption. The provision of basic services such as health and education is faltering and the alarm must be sounded. This is an Israeli-made tsunami that can be stopped if enough people of conscience around the world would hold Israel to account and pressure their institutions and governments to do so. Israel must pay a heavy price for its criminal behavior.
If ever there was a right time to isolate a rogue regime to prevent it from committing war crimes and crimes against humanity, it is now. We, the undersigned Palestinian civil society organizations in Gaza, call for urgent and effective measures of accountability, including boycotts, divestment and meaningful sanctions, against Israel and the corporations that are complicit in its serious violations of international law, to save hundreds of thousands of Palestinian civilians in Gaza from a fate of unspeakable suffering and slow death.
Israel’s massacre in Gaza in the summer of 2014 left approximately 2,300 of our people dead and damaged or destroyed our schools, hospitals, UN shelters and thousands of our homes. Eight months on, Gaza remains in ruins, yet at least 100,000 people remain homeless. Of the 12,600 houses that were totally destroyed, not one has yet been rebuilt.
To Palestinians everywhere, and in Gaza in particular, the 1948 Nakba is ongoing.
Despite the so-called ceasefire, Israel’s often deadly attacks on Palestinians in Gaza are continuous, especially on fishers in the “access restricted areas” along the boundary with Israel and off the Gaza coast. Access restricted areas were among the most hit during the massacre and still continue to suffer Israel’s violations of international law and Palestinian human rights.
At the root of this grave human suffering is Israel’s ongoing occupation and illegal eight-year siege, which severely restricts movement of people, goods and reconstruction materials. Health and education services have been severely impaired as well.
The Rafah crossing between Gaza and Egypt has been open just a handful of times so far this year. On average, just 198 people have been able to leave Gaza through the Rafah crossing each week during 2014, down from 955 during 2014.
UN enforcing Israel’s siege
As of February 2015, just 1,661 trucks (containing approximately 105,307 tons) of the 800,000 trucks of material needed to reconstruct destroyed homes and other buildings have been allowed to enter Gaza. The failure of international donors to release pledged funds has exacerbated severe energy shortages. Electricity is still only available for a few hours per day.
The United Nations Gaza Reconstruction Mechanism, the international community’s main response, is fundamentally flawed in a way that deepens the suffering of Palestinians in Gaza. The reconstruction mechanism makes the international community, and the UN in particular, the enforcers of the Israeli siege and makes aid to Palestinians conditional on Israeli approval.
As much as 71 percent of the aid pledged by international donors is expected to benefit the Israeli economy, effectively rewarding Israel for its massacre of Palestinians. Many of the companies supplying the construction efforts are illegally involved in the crime of pillage of Palestinian natural resources and/or participate in the construction of illegal settlements.
Many western governments are seeking to prevent Palestinians from taking cases against Israel to the International Criminal Court. Last July, the US voted against the establishment of a UN Gaza Commission of Inquiry, and several EU member states including France, Germany and the UK abstained from voting.
The US and Germany look set to continue their vast military support for Israel, while the European Union has maintained its Association Agreement with Israel, affording it access to EU markets and programs, and the Canadian government has even signed a raft of new agreements with Israel.
Even those countries in the global south that speak in clearer terms of their support for the Palestinian people’s right to self-determination have failed to translate their symbolic gestures into ending their military links and preferential trade agreements with Israel.
You can act
Given the human catastrophe that Gaza is facing and Israel’s threats of more atrocities, we call on governments and international bodies to take immediate action to:
Ensure Israel is held to account for its war crimes against Palestinians in Gaza, including by supporting Palestinians in seeking justice at the International Criminal Court.
End direct support for Israeli war crimes, including by imposing a comprehensive military embargo and suspending free trade agreements and other bilateral agreements until such time as Israel complies with international law, including lifting the siege on Gaza.
Provide immediate international protection to civilians in Gaza, including by providing financial and material support to help Palestinians to cope with the immense hardship they continue to experience.
We warmly thank the countless people of conscience and principled organizations around the world who stand in solidarity with our struggle for freedom, justice and equality, and call on international civil society, including trade unions, nongovernmental organizations, grassroots networks, political parties and parliamentarians to:
Join and build the Palestinian-led, global boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) movement as a key tool to ensure Israel is held to account for its violations of international law in Gaza and against Palestinians everywhere, including by pressuring universities, banks and pension funds to divest from companies profiting from Israel’s occupation and war crimes.
Pressure governments to impose military embargoes and trade sanctions.
Campaign against corporate criminals, such as military company Elbit Systems, security firm G4S and key Israeli military supplier HP. that enable Israeli violations of international law.
- Palestinian BDS National Committee
- Palestinian General Federation of Trade Unions (PGFTU)
- Palestinian NGO Network (PNGO)
- University Teachers’ Society in Palestine
- Palestinian Medical Relief Society
- Palestinian Association for Development and Reconstruction (PADR)
- Medical Democratic Assembly
- Palestinian Student Campaign for the Academic Boycott of Israel (PSCABI)
- Medical Initiative Assembly
- Arab Center for Agricultural Development (ACAD)
- Union of Health Work Committees
- One Democratic State Group
- Herak Youth Center
- Badr Campaign for Boycott of Israeli Goods